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2D and 3D Modelling Strategies to Reproduce the Response of Historical Masonry Buildings Subjected to Settlements

LOSS researchers Alfonso Prosperi and Mandy Korff published a new paper in the International Journal of Architectural Heritage:

In this study, 2D and 3D modelling strategies are used to represent the behaviour of historical masonry buildings on strip foundations undergoing settlements. The application focuses on a two-story building, typical of the Dutch architectural heritage. An improved 2D modelling is presented: It includes the effect of the lateral walls to replicate the response of the detailed 3D models. The masonry strip foundation is modelled and supported by a no-tension interface, which represents the soil-foundation interaction. Two settlement configurations, hogging and sagging, are applied to the models, and their intensity is characterized using their angular distortion. The improved 2D model that includes the stiffness and weight of the lateral walls agrees in terms of displacements, stress and damage with the detailed 3D models. Conversely, the simplified 2D façade models without lateral walls exhibit different cracking, and damage from 2 to 7 times lower at an applied angular distortion of 2‰ (1/500). The improved 2D model requires less computational and modelling burden, resulting in analyses from 9 to 40 times faster than the 3D models. The results prove the importance of identifying and including the 3D effects that affect the response of structures subjected to settlements.